Irish and German railroad and meatpacking workers settled here in the 1860s followed by German Jews in the 1890s. The neighborhood's direct transportation routes to downtown inspired wealthy white Chicagoans to build large mansions along the neighborhood's wide boulevards. From the beginning of the Great Migration into the 1940s, African Americans pushed southward from Bronzeville and clashed with white property owners who resisted racial integration. By 1930, Washington Park was over 90 percent black, and real estate brokers divided much of the neighborhood's housing stock into kitchenettes. This community used the park itself to engage in leisure activities and for open-air political meetings.