The Bronzeville community areas (primarily Douglas and Grand Boulevard) became Chicago's first majority African American neighborhoods during the Great Migration between World War I and 1929. Black migrants formed successful institutions, including civic associations, churches, and some businesses to cater to their newfound community. The Depression led many African Americans to seek more radical solutions to racial discrimination in employment and housing, and to create a cultural renaissance that embraced a black working-class artistic perspective. The loss of industrial jobs and the departure of many African Americans who could afford to seek better housing in other areas contributed to the neighborhood's decline in the 1950s. At the same time, community groups and real estate interests persistently worked to sustain their neighborhoods, and recently have endeavored to revive the once thriving "Black Metropolis."